|7, 28.300, 160.012|
Cộng hòa liên bang Quê Hương
Bài Hát Quê Hương Tôi
Song of my homeland
|Official languages||Kuehongese |
|• National languages||Kuehongese|
|• Regional languages||Neeg|
|Ethnic Groups||Kue (67.7%) |
Other Archantans (4.7%)
|Government||Federal Parliamentary Stratocracy (under a Military Junta)|
|• Chariman of the National Security and Stability Council||Vu Yền Lực|
|• Chief of the Assembly||Không Có Dụng|
|Legislature||National Advisory Assembly|
|• Total||160000 km2|
|• Census (2014)||32 million|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.679|
|Currency||New Kuehongese Bạc (NKB)|
|Drives on the||left|
Kuehong (Kuehongese: 家乡 Quê Hương pronounced [kweˈhɔŋ]), officially the Federal Republic of Kuehong (Kuehongese: 共和联邦家乡 Cộng hòa liên bang Quê Hương), is a republic located on the Muinon Peninsula in northern Archanta. To its north it is Fayaan, while to its southwest it borders with Cinasia. Kuehong has a population of 32 million, out of which 72% are native Kue, with the remaining being Bai, Neeg or other ethnic minorities. The capital is Bakdep (北叶 Bắc Đẹp), while Namthinhvuong (南盛旺 Nam Thịnh Vượng) is the largest city and the key financial centre of the country.
The area of Kuehong was inhabited from as early as 20000 BC, settled by what will be known as the Kue people. The Kingdom of Kue was formed in the 7th century AD. In the 15th to 16th century, the kingdom was defeated in an invasion by the Bai Empire (under the Suo Dynasty) and become part of the empire for the next 300 years. In the 17th to 18th centuries, Ulethan powers briefly administered the ports on the west side through various treaties. After Bai's collapse in the 20th century, the Republic of Kuehong was formed under Phạm Thơ Lanh (范初灵) as its first president and later merged with Fayaan to form a federation on the peninsula. However, over ethnic tensions, the peninsula was split. Following several political changes in Western Kuehong and northern Cinasia, Kuehong was united in the 1950s under a democracy. In 1967, however, after a political crisis, the military came to power through a coup d'etat. Under the military government, Kuehong was developed rapidly due to its stability. Industrial reforms began in 1982, and later social reforms began after that. In response to calls for democracy, the government have gone through a series of changes allowing greater democracy within its ranks.
Till today, Kuehong is still embroiled in rampant ethnic strifes in the rural areas in Loi Xo, Trac Khe and Phuong Lam, despite efforts in securing peace in the region. Being a stratocracy, it has a strong military force consisting entirely of the population. Although there are large improvements in the quality of education, healthcare, life expectancy, personal safety and housing, it continues to face challenges including poverty, corruption and inadequate social welfare, alongside allegations of human rights abuses against ethnic minorities.
Kuehong is an Ingerish transliteration of Quê Hương (家乡), which means "homeland" in the Kue language. The name could be traced back to the establishment of the Third Kue Kingdom in the 7th century AD. The term "Quê", which the Kue people called themselves since the 3rd century BC, was first written as "圭" until the Bai colonisation of the area, during which the Bai characters used for the Kue language were heavily revised. First written in early Bai traveller records, the term "Quê" means "family", which the explorers then took as the name of the native people. Since then up till around the 4th century AD, the term was used for the natives on the Muinon Peninsula.
In the 17th century, an Ingerish explorer came to the Bai colony and misspelt the name as "Kwehong", which appeared on maps published by Uletha in the subsequent centuries. Another spelling, "Kuehong", emerged later in the 19th century, and is widely used today. Other spelling variants, such as "Kue-hong", "Que Hong", "Quehong" or "Kue Hong", have also been used by other nations to refer to the state.
Kuehong lies above the Tropic of Cancer and is located between the 27N and 30N latitude. The country is rather temperate. Kuehong also experiences hot, humid weather from June through September, while typhoons are relatively common.
Kuehong has two mountain ranges generally from northeast to southwest, in contrast to the flat to gently rolling plains of the coastal areas, where most of the population generally reside.
The Bai explorers first arrived on the peninsula during their first expedition across the Ardentic in 1348. The Vua of Kue welcomed the Bai explorers and has generously given them gifts of spices and gold. The Bai (Suo) Empire and the Kue Kingdom formally signed an alliance in 1412. Over time, however, Kue became increasingly close with Bai and became more economically reliant on the empire. Some of the Kue began to protest against the increasing Bai presence on the peninsula as more Bai began to settle and set up businesses on the peninsula and feared a Bai takeover of the kingdom.
In 1448, a group of Neeg lords launched a coup against the pro-Bai Giac Dynasty, proclaiming the brief Tran Dynasty (陈朝). The Bai, backing the Giac, intervened by sending ships and troops to support the Giac. During the course of the four-year war, called the Mui Campaign, the Bai took over many ports and areas of the peninsula, particularly the south, and managed to defeat the Neegs by launching a controversial genocide against them in 1452. At the end of the war, the Giacs were forced to concede southern Que through the Treaty of Cong Bang. Subsequent treaties, the Treaty of Nam Thinh in 1467 (which saw the formal occupation of its ports under Bai rule) and the Treaty of Phong Thinh in 1479 (which officially puts the Giac Dynasty as a vassal state) resulted in further Bai control over the peninsula. By 1489, the Bai has taken full control of the Muinon peninsula, with the Giac Dynasty becoming mere nominal rulers.
Throughout the colonial era, many southern Bai arrived as soldiers, civil servants, construction workers and traders, dominating commercial and civil life on the peninsula. Names of various towns began to change and the natives' names gradually conformed to the Bai standard. The peninsula was largely controlled by the Royal Muinon Bai Administration, which became poorly funded as the decades go by due to economic problems at home. The officials found it was difficult to govern the peninsula as trade on the peninsula began to stagnate. The weakening Suo Dynasty saw a few losses on the peninsula, such as the annexation of northern Muinon to Castellan, the Dutch and Floresecentans, as well as a few sporadic rebellions by Bai merchants and locals.
Upon the collapse of the Suo Dynasty, several Bai merchants proclaimed their own Yuet Dynasty at the south, while the rest of the Bai Administration remained faithful to the newly-established Lin Dynasty at home, effectively splitting the rest of the peninsula into two. The Lin, having a new alliance with Ingerland, started to lease a few ports over to its ally to boost developments on the peninsula. Other Ulethan powers began to dominate the peninsula, leading to a few disputes and battles over northern Muinon which undermined Bai's authority on the peninsula. Meanwhile, the Yuet also tried to persuade the administration to switch their allegiance to the Yuet instead of the Lin, which was rejected. The Administration also tried to bring down the Yuet Dynasty but without Lin's military presence, the Administration was unable to do so and were only able to bring down attempts by the Yuet to take over the Administration.
In the 18th century, the Lin Dynasty was replaced by the Middle Bai Dynasty. The Middle Bai sought to consolidate its control over its remaining colonies. Some trade leases with the Ulethan powers were forcefully ended or were renegotiated with the Bai having more control over the ports. The Yuet Dynasty was brought down in 1732 and reforms were made in the corrupted Administration. Although it failed to reestablish control over northern Muinon, or Fayaan, a trade deal was made to foster positive developments and trade connections on the peninsula. The reforms made by the Middle Bai Empire did give an initial boost to the local economy but later faltered when corrupt officials began to retake the Administration.
The 19th century saw a rise of Kue nationalism when the Middle Bai tried to forcefully implement Bai culture and displace the local culture. The natives have to endure poor living conditions and were faced with elitist entrance requirements to study in the Bai universities or abroad or unable to find jobs taken up by the Bai. The independence movement began to gain traction, with the creation of an armed militia, the Alliance for the Liberation of Kuehong, aiming to bring about independence by force. Meanwhile, the local Bai population, largely made of merchants, were beginning to be dissatisfied with the higher taxes they were forced to pay for the empire's developments at home and hoped to renegotiate the recent economic policies. However, the Bai government refused to negotiate and the Administration was unable to change the policies.
Gradual reforms were made, such as the replacing the Administration by the Provisional Muinon Council which allows representation by the locals under the Kue National Alliance (KNA), and the Bai workers and unionists under the Progressive Commerce Guild. Although different in purpose, the Alliance and the Guild agreed to cooperate for gradual independence. In 1904, several politicians of the Provisional Muinon Council managed to negotiate the Loang Kheuch Agreement that guaranteed the gradual independence of Muinon as a united state within 10 years. However, several Kue nationalists and other minorities protested against the Agreement, claiming that it only favours the Bai and does not represent the interests of the natives. Riots in the 1910s and attacks by the Alliance led to Bai's reluctance in granting independence, not believing in the State Congress' ability to keep the peace on the peninsula, especially after the assassination of those who signed the agreement in 1912. A controversial decision was then made in 1913 to disband the KNA who is perceived to back the militias. The remainder of the colonial era continued to be ruled by the Bai, and natives, except by those seen as more supportive of the Bai, were barred from being elected into the Council, leading to further unrest on the peninsula even after its independence. test
Independence and Partition
Upon the fascists' rise to power in the Bai Empire, the fascists proceeded to grant Muinon, along with some of the other Bai territories, independence, under the Colonies Independence Act. Hence, the new country, the Union of Cinasia (named by the newly-formed State Congress), became independent on 2 July 1922, with Ho Ling Wha (郝齡話) as its first president. With the Bai withdrawal from the peninsula, the Alliance proclaimed the creation of the Kuehong Free State in central Muinon in 1928 and announced its intentions to 'reclaim the peninsula for the natives'. Cinasia attempted to put a stop to the rebellion but was not initially successful as they have no forces to counter the Alliance until the Bai Fascists' intervention, leading to the Muinon War. The war only ended in 1938 after years of stalemate, with an agreement to create a new sovereign Kuehong Free State.
The Kuehong Free State later transited into Democratic Kuehong after a communist coup - the 31st October Movement - in 1938. Meanwhile, the rest of Cinasia fell into civil war between three main factions - The Republic Government, the Communist Front and the Naamsing Liberation Front. The Kuehong communist government had several times intervened in the Cinasian Civil War, supporting the Cinasian communists to invade Northern Cinasia under control of the Naamsing government. Later, however, the Kue communists backed the Naamsing faction as they took a more nationalistic stance for its own brand of communism. Northern Cinasia, populated by Bai Kue (those with mixed Kue and Bai descent) and a smaller portion of ethnic Kue, had tried to lobby the central Republic government for more autonomy over its own affairs. However, the central Republic government, distrustful of the Bai Kue (deeming them traitors of the Bai and allies of the Kue), had attempted an assimilation programme of the region, rounding up several Bai Kue who had been involved in the independence movement into concentration camps. In response, several of the provinces in the region then allied together against the Republic Government to form the Bai Kue Liberation League which aimed to bring about secession from Cinasia.
The communist regime, while initially seeing significant social reforms and huge spending on key infrastructure projects, later went bankrupt due to financial mismanagement and Democratic Kuehong fell into an economic crisis. The communists under So Mot became more repressive, and in radical bids to reform the economy in the socialist way, So Mot took rather extreme measures that greatly isolated Kuehong, including his infamous Nhảy Tuyệt Vời policy that forcibly relocated the urban population to the countryside to work on collective farms. At the same time, mass purges were then conducted in hopes to eliminate those sabotaging the economy. These mass killings, coupled with malnutrition and poor medical care, killed between 1.5 and 2 million people, approximately a quarter of the population. Repeated purges generated growing discontent; by 1950 the army, which has not really supported the communists, were mounting a rebellion in the east.
The Naamsing faction, meanwhile, was ruled under a provisional government largely led by military juntas. The ongoing civil war prevented the government from making meaningful reforms, apart from constructing new roads and factories needed for the war effort. The faction went on to open certain sectors of its economy to foreign investors, though limited by the Republic Government lobbying other powers not to trade with the wayward faction and the rapid expansion of corruption, collusion, and nepotism in the state. It was only later under 朴元淳 Phác Nguyên Thuần who made key reforms of the faction and helped develop the state. As the Cinasian Civil War draws to a close in 1958, the Naamsing government managed to attain independence as the Republic of Northern Cinasia. The new republic, backing the Kue rebels, managed to oust the communist government in 1959. Both sides decided that a full union of both Kuehong and Northern Cinasia was essential for their economic and political survival, as both can cap on the combined pool of resources and population. The merger was also seen as a move against the Cinasian Republic influence, who still maintained claims of its past borders which now included the two new weaker states.
Reunification and military rule
After a 1960 merger referendum that was seen as rigged, the two states merged into the Federal Republic of Kuehong with a brief power-sharing agreement between the Kue military junta and the Naamsing government. Elections were then called a year later for a new united, democratic parliamentary government to take over the two juntas that have been controlling the states. The 1962 elections saw a landslide win for the United Democratic Kuehong Union, a coalition of right-leaning parties led by Phung Kinh Gu of the Kue Conservative Party. The leftist coalition, made up of the remnants of the past communist regime, however, claimed that the elections were rigged which triggered protests and riots in the country. Despite efforts in mediating the situation, the unrest led to the assassination of Phung by some radicals in March 1964.
Fresh elections were then called again, but the new elections of that year saw a deeply divided government between the right and the left coalitions. The Union barely managed to scrap a majority in the government by two seats. Even so, the government was unable to enact any reforms or policies needed for the growth of the country. With the worsening economic situation and protests, the new leader, 尹泰日 Doãn Thái Nhật, resigned and called for another round of snap polls in 1966. By then, the military forces had been gaining the support of the population who wished for a stable strong government.
The rightist coalition managed to secure more seats in the 1966 elections due to the backing of the military, and military general Trần Chí Duệ then took over as Prime Minister. However, soon after, Cinasia and Kuehong were involved in a minor border skirmish in Loang Kheuch arising from a Neeg insurgency in the region and the disputed waters of the Shaachrau Strait. The military was granted more power to resolve the crisis. The mysterious shooting of the opposition leader in March 1967 then led into another wave of demonstrations by leftist groups against a possible military takeover. The military then proceeded to launch a crackdown against the demonstrators (which they alleged are backed by Cinasia) and launched a coup soon later in August, imposing martial law for the sake of restoring 'national security' in the country. Even after peace was restored after the crackdown, the military refused to cede power back to the already weakened rightist coalition and banned all political parties and activities. On 13 July 1968, the military formally took power with the swearing-in of the then defence minister Trần Chí Duệ (陈志睿) as the Chairman of the Security and Stability Congress, replacing the vacant posts of the prime minister and president, starting military rule over the country.
The military banked on their broad appeal to the population, by continuing policies promised by the rightist government, which has not been implemented due to the political unrest. Under the initial years of military rule, the nation recovered economically, with massive development took place in the western regions, which saw little development under communist rule. However, the military was criticized for its emphasis on developing large-scale infrastructure projects, with some comparisons made to the past communist regime's attempts to build up the country. Many felt the millions of dollars spent on building new motorways and a rail network wasted, especially since deaths of the villagers were reported to make way for the motorways, with a death toll amounting to around 500; others supported Tran's vision to develop a stable, peaceful and prosperous society in the country.
To solidify military rule, the military started the nationalisation of corporations and businesses in the country all under a new trade union indirectly controlled by the military. In 1974, the new constitution was put in place that not only formalised military rule over the country, but also completely destroyed the line differentiating civilian and military life, formally turning Kuehong into a stratocracy. A year after, a nationwide conscription programme under National Service was implemented to assimilate the people's lives under military rule.
In 1979, Tran dies, with a new leader Vũ Tuấn Hưng (武俊兴) taking over, beginning a series of social reforms by loosening restrictions and control over the populace. The new leader went on to build new schools and public services funded by the military. The military went on to encourage start-ups in the country, encouraging military-trained officials to also engage in business activities as well. He eventually made his controversial move to allow immigrants in the country. However, his economic policies also saw the rise of 'undesirable elements' in the government, such as illicit drug trade and corruption in the country. While initially, the government denied such charges, the trade was eventually exposed by the leader's own opponents who were pushing for the 'cleansing' of the military government, leading to a series of resignations of prominent officials including Vu himself in 1984. He was replaced by colonel Trần Tu Tín, who continued such reforms, though he was criticised for being slow on implementing his promises of a better Kuehong. Nevertheless, he is known for his efforts in revising the education and healthcare system in Kuehong. He was forced to resign in 1990 due to his failing health.
The new leader, Lý Duc An (李德恩), took a bold step in the reformation of the government itself. To enhance the credibility of the government, he implemented a system of checks and balances, introducing the two four-year term limits for the chairman post and the formal establishment of the legislature - the National Council - led by a Chief Counsellor. In 1992, after the implementation of the new constitution, he launched the first nationwide elections for the new legislature in Kuehong. However, the 1993 elections, initially hailed as Kuehong's first step to democracy, was quickly dismissed as a sham. Half of the 360 seats in the Council were already earlier appointed by the Congress, while the rest were nominated by the Congress for voters to pick. Some of the defeated candidates revealed that they were paid or intimidated to lose. The number of voters was relatively low (of about 120 000) since those eligible to vote comprises of those who ranks are higher than Major.
In 1994, Ly Duc An, despite his promise not to continue for another term, was controversially re-elected as Chairman by the Congress after he arrested his supposed successor for conspiracy and plotting to overthrow him. With no one able to succeed him and his reluctance to delay elections for Chairman, he continued on as Chairman. This sparked a demonstration in Vang Ngat in September that was immediately put down by the military. Nevertheless, Ly was later overthrown in a coup on 29 April 1996 when the military turned against him after Ly attempted to pass a law to extend his term limit. He was replaced by Colonel Diep Duy Tam, who led the bloodless coup. Diep's verbal attacks on corruption earned him much-needed initial support among the populace. Now-Chairman Diep, in response to mounting pressure for political reform, set up a constitutional review commission, including a team of advisors from the AN, to review the 1974 constitution. The recommendations include allowing direct elections by all ranks of the military (i.e. the whole population above the age of 18) to vote, no interference by the Congress in the nomination of the Chief Counselor, increasing the portion of seats for the national elections, and the right of the Council to impeach the Chairman if he/she abuses his/her power. The recommendations were largely accepted. Hence, the constitution was revised and approved with a majority vote in the council and became effective on 1 January 1997. Meanwhile, Diep established and normalised relations with other nations and signed various trade pacts to allow more overseas companies to operate in Kuehong. This has helped significantly improve the nation's economy. Soon after, the military in agreed to lease an army base in Vang Ngat for AN peacekeeping missions for 50 years over political unrest in the region.
After the 1998 national elections, regarded as 'fair and free', Diep stepped down as chairman to make way for his brother Diep Quang Nhan. Under his tenure, he has to face several crises, such as the Neeg Rebellion in 2001 and further tensions with Belphenia over its military activities in the Belphenian Sea. He also made the controversial decision to dismiss and arrest the then Chief of the Assembly Những Bất Đồng (formerly Chief Counsellor) and 15 other counsellors over 'deep disagreements' in certain policies, especially his decision to embark on numerous mega-projects and his dealings with the rebellion. In response to growing government opposition, Diep's government disbanded several non-governmental organisations (NGOs), considering them 'a threat to national security'. In 2003, however, Diep made the decision to pardon and release the political prisoners on the condition they will not contest in that year's elections. In response, the candidates which supported the pro-democracy movement boycotted the elections, hence the elections were won largely by those supportive of the military. 2003 also saw the first state elections after the decentralisation of power, allowing states to have more autonomy over their own affairs. Diep was then re-elected for another term as chairman. In 2004, the government also made a surprise reduction of national service duration from three years to two and a half years for males and from two and a half years to two years for women. Later that year, the government also legalised of casino gambling, to increase its attractiveness as a tourist destination.
In 2009, eastern Kuehong was hit by a severe typhoon, followed by an earthquake. Despite measures put in place to combat the typhoon, there was severe damage to the nation's infrastructure and resulted in deaths estimated from 80,000 to 200,000. The damage from these events resulted in the delays in elections as recovery efforts were made in the low-laying eastern regions which were negatively affected. In 2011, Dipe stepped down and the military committee voted in favour of Vu Yền Lực. The Vu administration took steps to redevelop the damaged areas. Vu, thanks to his efforts to redevelop the damaged areas and social reforms to help the growing elderly population, has gained the support of the majority and was re-elected for another term. In 2018, Vu has floated proposals for further political reforms, including the possibility of a direct election for the Chairman.
Government and politics
Kuehong is a federal parliamentary republic ruled by a military junta. The constitution declares the rule of the military legitimate since 1974 and hence it is a stratocracy, one of the few nations under the system, with the population of Kuehong all considered part of the military under the constitution. It is an executive-led governing system, with the National Security and Stability Council (NSSC) as the executive branch. The head of state is the Chairman of the General Committee, who serves for at most two five-year terms, while the head of government is the Chief of the National Advisory Assembly (Chief of the Assembly), the leader of the federal legislative branch.
There has been a number of reforms in the government since the 80s, which nowadays gives the legislative more power over decisions, including the power to impeach the Chairman. The reforms also saw the gradual introduction of democracy in the country, with citizens being able to vote for the counsellors in the Assembly. However, central power remains in the Committee, which can force a reconsideration of legislation. The committee can propose new bills, issue subordinate legislation, and has authority to dissolve the legislature.
The Chief of the Assembly is nominated by the Committee and elected by the 280 Counsellors. All of the counsellors, in turn, are elected by the people through a national election. Candidates for the Assembly needed to go through a 'screening process' by the Election Committee. All of the counsellors are not affiliated to any political party (since political parties are banned) but normally aligned themselves into two ideological groups: the pro-military camp (the current majority) and the pro-democracy camp. The elections for the Assembly is held every five years (with the exception of 2009, which was delayed until 2011 due to a severe typhoon), the most recent of which was held in 2016. Registered military personnel of age 21 and above may vote for the members of the Assembly and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting remains mandatory, but in recent years this has been debated upon.
The Supreme National's Court of Kuehong, headed by a chief justice, is the country's highest court of appeal. The legal system of Kuehong runs parallel with the legal system of the military. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and numerous local courts. Kuehong is known to have very tough penalties for certain offences as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offences. Homosexuality is banned in Kuehong.
Despite the political reforms allowing greater democracy in Kuehong, critics still maintained that the regime remains authoritarian. There still remains on restrictions of speech and transparency of the government, but many acknowledged the improvements in freedoms and the rule of law and justice in Kuehong. For example, in 2016, the Assembly managed to pass certain changes regarding the National Penal Code, changing the policy from mandatory to discretionary capital punishment.
Kuehong's current foreign policy is to "consistently implement a policy of independence, self-reliance, peace, co-operation, and positive development" with regard to Kuehong and other nations. Foreign relations with Ulethan nations since the 21st century has markedly improved; it has previously been strained due to the nation's human rights abuses under military rule and remained largely isolated due to sanctions and arms embargo. Ties were reestablished with Kuehong took massive reforms in its political system. Meanwhile, Kuehong still has close ties with Northern Archantan nations, with such corporations having invested into the country and extracting the country's natural resources.
Bilateral relations with Cinasia and Fayaan remain strong. Previously, however, Kuehong refused to recognise its neighbours' sovereignty and has claimed them as part of Kuehong even after the partitioning of Muinon, resulting in the Muinon Confrontation that continued until the 50s. Since the end of the confrontation, ties were established with the Cinasian and the Fayaan governments in 1960 and 1962 respectively. However, territorial disputes still remain and efforts have been made to resolve such issues.
Kuehong in recent years has also taken an increasingly active role on the international stage. It has contributed troops to the international peacekeeping effort and has hosted the Archantan office for the Assembly of Nations Peacekeeping troops, in addition to leasing several bases for AN peacekeeping training. It is also a member of the Assembly of Nations.
Being a stratocracy, all aspects of Kuehong's politics fall under the military and influences people's livelihoods as well. Under the stratocracy, everyone is considered part of the Kuehongese military. The Kuehongese People's Defence Forces (KPDF) consists of the Kuehong People's Army, the Kuehong People's Public Security and the Kuehong Civil Defence Force, headed by the Chairman of the General Committee. The KPDF consists of the army, air force and navy. The KPDF is assisted by resources from its secret services - the Domestic Military Intelligence Directorate (DMID) and the International Military Intelligence Agency of Kuehong (IMIAK). Besides being involved in various border conflicts with its neighbours, the KPDF has recently taken part in several peacekeeping missions worldwide.
As Kuehong is a stratocracy, the military strength of the country consists of the entire population above 12. Most Kuehongese are drafted into the military at the age of 18, with men serving for two years and six months and women two years. Only healthy personnel above 18 and below 55 are to be in the armed forces, with others taking up voluntary community services or other less-active roles in the military. Kuehong has one of the world's highest percentage of citizens with military training.
Kuehong is a federation of nine states and one federal territory. Governance of the states is officially divided between the federal and the state governments, with different powers reserved for each, ever since the 2003 decentralisation of power. However, many said that Federal government, while it has direct administration of the federal territories, remains to have huge control over the states as well.
The states, in turn, are further divided into prefectures or districts.
Kuehong has three official languages - Kuehongese (also its national language), Babelic (Bai) and Ingerish. Kuehongese is spoken by the majority of the population, while Bai is generally spoken by the ethnic Bai population in Kuehong. There is an increasing number of Ingerish speakers in Kuehong after Ingerish language lessons were made compulsory since 2001 when it became the official language.
Kuehongese is one of the few languages with active digraphia. Officially, it uses both Xinbaizi (simplified Bai characters) and Mautu (modified Romantian). Xinbaizi is used in the majority of textbooks, novels, road signs, official documents and newspapers. Sometimes, and increasingly, Mautu is used alongside Xinbaizi, especially since Mautu has become more popular and widely used by the younger generation. In 2017, it is found that Kuehongese speakers are able to read Mautu but a significant portion (at 28%) are unable to read Xinbaizi. There have also been calls to abolish Xinbaizi, especially during a mass rally in Vang Ngat in 2016 which led to violent clashes after radical protestors defaced road signs using Xinbaizi.