Cinasian Civil War
|Cinasian Civil War|
|Part of Second Muinon War|
Clockwise from top left: Federal States soldiers arriving to support the Republic forces in an operation, Dehua communists defending themselves against an attack by Republic forces in the Cinasian mountains, Republic victory parade in Yu-King, Kue communists captured by the Republic forces
The Cinasian Civil War, or the Three Generals Period, was a civil war in Cinasia fought between 1943 and 1969. Three major factions were involved in the conflict – The forces of Democratic Dehua (supported by Democratic Kuehong), the Cinasian Republic forces (supported by the Federal States) and the Bai Kue Liberation League of the Naamsing government, which split away from the Republic forces.
Upon the split of the Muinon Peninsula, the Cinasian communists launched a revolution against the Cinasian Republic government believed to be backed by the Kue communists. The revolution received the support of many Bai low-waged labourers who did not support the State Congress. Meanwhile, the Federal States proceeded to intervene to back the Cinasian government against the communists, leading to a decade-long conflict which also affected the neighbouring countries. During the crisis, the Bai Kue of the northeast decided to cede from Cinasia due to its distrust of the Federal States and cultural differences, forming the Liberation League through the Naamsing mutiny in 1953.
By the 1960s, the communists began to lose support due to the collapse of Democratic Kuehong, and Republic forces managed to recapture the capital of Yu-King in 1958. A truce agreement was eventually signed among the various belligerents, but communist forces in Cinasia continue to launch small military campaigns against the Republic. At the same time, the Republic attempted an invasion of Northern Cinasia and later the newly-formed Federal Republic of Kuehong. The 1969 Fayaan Peace Accords brought about the official end of the war, which resulted in the Republic-led Cinasian government and the military regime in Kuehong. About 275,000–310,000 soldiers died in the conflict, with many civilians displaced or killed.
Partioning of Muinon
The Muinon peninsula that remained under Bai rule attained independence in 1922 as the Union of Cinasia under a Bai-led government. However, the wave of Kue nationalism led to the formation of the Kuehong Free State at the north in 1928. Cinasia then proceeded to launch a war against the 'Kue rebellion', as it was called, but the invasion escalated into the First Muinon War. After a decade of stalemate, it was eventually agreed to partition the peninsula to allow the formal creation of the Kuehong Free State in 1938.
The loss of the four Kue-majority provinces humiliated the Cinasian government and led to a decrease in support of the government. The president also lost support when he refused to give up the emergency powers given to him during the war, and he eventually resigned as the protests intensified. His successor, Hong Tsoeng Kyn (項昌權), was just a puppet of Ho Ling Wha, and he was ultimately assassinated by protestors in 1940, leading to snap polls for the Cinasian Congress.
The 1940 elections saw no clear majority in the Congress, and the political and economic chaos allowed the communists to rise to power through a communist uprising in 1941.
Communist movement in Muinon
At the turn of the 20th century, several communist groups were set up on the Muinon Peninsula. The movement was split into three main groups: those who aligned more closely with Kue nationalism (the Kue People's Communist Party (KPCP)), those advocating communism for everyone (the Pan-Muinon People's Communist Party (PMPCP)) and the Bai coolies and workers sympathetic to the communist movement (the Bai Muinon Democratic Workers' Party (BMDWP) and other workers' union). In the 1920s, as the communist movement gained traction abroad, the Muinon communists tried to ally together but eventually split again soon later.
Still, there were informal ties between the various factions. The Kue communists supported the BMDWP (later renamed the Cinasian Democratic Workers' Party (CDWP)) and had supplied them arms and equipment to bring about a communist uprising in Cinasia. The BMDWP since 1937 was led by Tsan Tin Fuk 陳天福, who was reportedly a close friend of So Mot, the leader of the KPCP at the time.
The CDWP has repeatedly contested in the congressional elections although it has failed to attain a significant amount of seats needed. Nevertheless, it became increasingly popular over time through its propaganda campaigns, and by 1938 it was reported that a large proportion of the lower-income households (about 83%) backed the communists. There were attempts by the Cinasian government to discredit the communists, but made little impact in their political activities and support.